Different amounts of physical activity can influence fertility and pregnancy outcome. Excessive or lack of exercise may result in decreased fertility by negatively impacting ovulation, menstrual cycles as well as egg and sperm quality. Women who exercise before and during the pregnancy have better obstetrical outcomes with lower risk of having complications.
Women who exercise excessively may have ovulation dysfunction, low estrogen levels and possibly bone loss (osteopenia or osteoporosis). Low body mass index (BMI) is associated with oligomenorrhea (irregular ovulation) or amenorrhea (lack of ovulation and periods). Conversely, lack of exercise and being overweight or obese may also impact ovulation and egg quality.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common hormonal disorder in reproductive aged women, which is closely associated with obesity and ovulation dysfunction. Obese women with PCOS have higher risk of having miscarriages, but regular exercise with dietary modifications can result in better fertility outcomes. It has been documented that weight loss of as